There is a strong tradition of pietism in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, which has succeeded in finding a home for a diversity of approaches and theological positions. A number of "revival" movements have emerged from this tradition. Their adherents belong to the church, but are also to a greater or lesser extent involved in their own groups.
The oldest active revival movements today are:
the Awakened Movement ("herännäisyys" or "körttiläisyys");
the Prayer Movement ("rukoilevaisuus");
the Laestadian Movement ("lestadiolaisuus");
the Lutheran Evangelical Movement ("evankelisuus").
Although the movements mentioned above all began as protest movements, they have found their place in the church over time, along with the groups associated with the Fifth Revival ("viides herätysliike") of the mid-twentieth century.
In recent times new groups have emerged within the church: "Hengen uudistus kirkossamme" (the charismatic renewal movement), "Taizen Ystävät" (Friends of Taizé), "Tuomasmessu" (The Thomas Mass) and various retreat movements.
More controversially, opposition to the ordination of women (in effect since 1988) finds strong support in some of the movements; there is some dispute about Bible translations and the current hymnal; and the doctrinal positions and liturgical practices of some charismatic groups have been questioned.